Dear Brother, part 11: ‘Unless by the visitation of God’; Charles Cadogan declared a lunatic (Upper Grosvenor Street, London December 10th 1799 – February 2nd 1800)

If Charles Cadogan wrote to William from The Hague, or anywhere else on his return from Paris in 1790, there is no record of it. The Paris letter, with its promise of a reunion at Reading in late Summer, is the last time we hear of him, until a document we went to see at the National Archives yesterday, from London in the Winter of 1799 – 1800. It’s a sad end to the summer of the letters.

The Commissions to Inquire into Lunacy are stored in a flat, A3-shaped cardboard box. (It weighs a ton, as I realised when Zak carried it over.) It contains 250 pairs of broad parchments, the Royal Writ empowering the Commissioners, and the Commissioners’ report attached. They date from the 1650s to the 1830s, but the wording is unchanged across three centuries.

The Commission to Inquire into the Lunacy of the Honourable Charles Henry Cadogan was a rapid process. The King’s Writ is dated December 10th 1799; the Commissioners examined witnesses on January 31st 1800, and filed their conclusions at Lincoln’s Inn February 2nd 1800. It is not a medical report, and none of the witnesses is identified as a doctor. It is concerned with securing the patient’s assets.

I’ll give the document in full at the end, but this is the main question:

whether the Honourable Charles Henry Cadogan of Upper Grosvenor Street in the County of Middlesex is a Lunatick or Enjoys lucid Intervals so that he is not sufficient for the Government of himself his Manors Messuages Lands Tenements Goods and Chattels And if so from what time after what manner and how And if the same Charles Henry Cadogan being in the same Condition hath Alienated any Lands or Tenements or not and if so what Lands and what Tenements to what person or persons where when and after what manner and how and how much they are worth by the Year in all Issues and who is his nearer Heir and of what Age

In the Commissioners’ report, twenty-two witnesses swear (when examined at the Thatched House Tavern on St James’s).

that the said Charles Henry Cadogan is at the time of making this Inquisition a Lunatick and doth not enjoys lucid intervals but so that he is not sufficient for the government of himself and his Estate And that he hath been in the same state of Lunacy from the first day of January One Thousand seven hundred and Ninety three but how or by what means the said Charles Henry Cadogan became a Lunatick the Jurors aforesaid know not unless by the visitation of God

These witnesses, however, know nothing of Cadogan’s property, or who his heir would be. It creates a rather frightening picture that in these dark years Cadogan’s world was full of strangers. Perhaps the reverse is true, and they are being discreet. None of the witnesses can be identified with certainty, except perhaps Nathaniel Conant, who may be Nathaniel Conant (1745 – 1822), later knighted as Chief Magistrate of Bow Street. Cadogan’s father the 3rd Lord Cadogan is not mentioned, nor any other members of Cadogan’s family. But Cadogan’s address ‘of Upper Grosvenor Street’ is significant. Thanks to British History Online, we know that Charles Cadogan’s father leased 41 Upper Grosvenor Street in 1793, the year that Cadogan’s illness is said to have begun. This suggests that Lord Cadogan either took Charles in at the beginning of his illness, or provided the house for him at that time. For six years he must’ve hoped that Charles would recover.

Lord Cadogan left Upper Grosvenor Street in 1800. He was 72 years old, and his life for the past 30 years had been full of tragedy. His first wife had died, along with five of his younger sons. That same year King George III created him Viscount Chelsea and Earl Cadogan. When he died in 1807, Charles succeeded him as 2nd Earl Cadogan.

In the matter of Charles Henry Sloane Earl Cadogan a lunatic 1807 – 1811 (National Archive C101/925) shows that the affairs of ‘a lunatic’ were managed by official receivers, like a bankrupt’s, but that in Cadogan’s case at least these receivers were family friends, more like Trustees, Horatio Walpole Earl of Orford and Charles Cadogan’s cousin Hans Sloane MP.

We are back to the Complete Peerage for bare bones of the rest of Charles Cadogan’s life.  He died at Enfield December 23rd 1832 aged 83, and was buried at St Luke’s Chelsea January 3rd 1833.

Cadogan had made his will April 28th 1783 before he set out on his travels. He arranged for mourning rings for his Trustees, and left his estate to his brother William and then to his sister-in-law Jane, and then to their children ‘for their maintenance education and support’, and after them to his sisters and their heirs, and after them to his father’s children by his second wife. He excludes any sons if they inherit the title, presumably because his father’s property would be entailed on them.

When the will was proved in 1833, administration was granted to Lady Louisa Cadogan, spinster, Charles’s sister.

On the 19th July 1833 Administration (with the Will annexed) of the Goods Chattels and Credits of The Right Honourable Charles Henry Earl Cadogan (formerly the Honourable Charles Henry Cadogan) Deceased was granted to the Right Honourable Lady Louisa Cadogan Spinster the natural and lawful daughter of Charles Sloane Lord Cadogan deceased and as such one of the Residuary Legatees substituted in the said Will having been first sworn duly to Administer.// Hans Sloane and Henry Hunter Esquires the Executors and Universal Legatees in trust and the Honourable and Reverend William Bromley Cadogan and the Residuary Legatee for life and Jane Cadogan (Wife of the said Honourable and Reverend William Bromley Cadogan) the residuary Legatee for life substituted respectively died in the lifetime of the said Testator) and the said Honourable and Reverend William Bromley Cadogan died without issue (as by Acts of Court Appear//.

Charles Cadogan was succeeded as Earl by his half-brother George Cadogan (1783 – 1864. The 3rd Earl, a future admiral, was only born the year Charles set out on his travels. Charles had outlived William and Jane, and the trustees named in his will, including Hans Sloane. It is reassuring to see that Sloane, official receiver of Cadogan’s income in 1807, was so well-trusted by him. Next time, I’ll try to pull together the picture of Cadogan we get from these records and his letters, and look at the last wills of William and Jane Cadogan, which make interesting portraits of this couple who are central characters in Cadogan’s world.

Documents

1.Commission to Inquire into the Lunacy of the Honourable Charles Henry Cadogan

(National Archives, Kew C211/5/C129)

The Royal Commission

George [printed word] the third by the Grace of God of Great Britain France and Ireland King Defender of the Faith and soforth To his beloved Joseph Jekyll Thomas Evans William Cooke Abraham Moore and Augustine Greenland Esquires Greeting Know ye That we have assigned three or more of ye to Inquire by the Oath of good and lawful Men of Our County of Middlesex as well within Liberties as without by whom the Truth of the Matter may be better known whether the Honourable Charles Henry Cadogan of Upper Grosvenor Street in the County of Middlesex is a Lunatick or Enjoys lucid Intervals so that he is not sufficient for the Government of himself his Manors Messuages Lands Tenements Goods and Chattels And if so from what time after what manner and how And if the same Charles Henry Cadogan being in the same Condition hath Alienated any Lands or Tenements or not and if so what Lands and what Tenements to what person or persons where when and after what manner and how and how much they are worth by the Year in all Issues and who is his nearer Heir and of what Age and therefore we Command ye three or more of ye That at certain days and places which ye shall for this purpose appoint Ye diligently make Inquisition in the Premises and the same distinctly and plainly made to Us in Our Chancery under your Seals of three or more of ye and the Seals of those Persons by whom it shall be made without delay ye send And these Our Letters Patent For we Command by the Tenour of these presents Our Sheriff of Our County of Middlesex aforesaid That at certain days and places which she shall make known to Him We cause to come before ye three or more of ye so many and such Good and Lawful Men of the Bailiwick as well within Liberties as without by whom the truth of the Matter in the Premises may be better known and Enquired into In Testimony whereof we have caused these Our Letters to be made patent Witness Ourself at Westminster the tenth day of December in the fortieth Year of Our Reign./.

(signed) Thurlow

(On the reverse) The Execution of this Writ Appears in the Schedule hereto annexed – The answer of Joseph Jekyll William Cooke Abraham Moore

(in Lord Thurlow’s handwriting) A Commission to Inquire of the Lunacy of the Honble Charles Henry Cadogan

Thurlow

The Commissioners’ Report

Middlesex An Inquisition taken at the House situate in Saint James’s Street in the Parish of Saint James within the Liberty of Westminster in the County of Middlesex known by the name of the Thatched House Tavern on Friday the thirty first day of January in the fortieth year of the Reign of King George the third and in the year of our Lord One thousand eight hundred Before Joseph Jekyll William Cooke and Abraham Moore Esquires His Majestys Commissioners by virtue of a Commission in nature of a Writ de Lunatico inquirendo under the Great Seal of Great Britain bearing date at Westminster the tenth day of December in the fortieth year of the reign aforesaid to them the said commissioners and others in the said Commission named directed to inquire amongst other things of the Lunacy of The Honourable Charles Henry Cadogan of Grosvenor Street in the said county of Middlesex upon the Oath of Thomas Collins, Nathaniel Conant, William Forsteim, William Kinnard, John White, David Dean, John Hunter, Nicholas Bond, John Warner, John Bacon, Richard Smart, Edmund Pepys, William Spencer, Thomas Bennett, Daniel Birkett, Webb Marratt, Richard Bouzer, Joseph Wigg, William Morris, Gideon Combrune, William Tyler and William Harrison Esquires good honest and lawful Men of the said County of Middlesex who being sworn and charged upon their Oath say that the said Charles Henry Cadogan is at the time of making this Inquisition a Lunatick and doth not enjoys lucid intervals but so that he is not sufficient for the government of himself and his Estate And that he hath been in the same state of Lunacy from the first day of January One Thousand seven hundred and Ninety three but how or by what means the said Charles Henry Cadogan became a Lunatick the Jurors aforesaid know not unless by the visitation of God And the same Jurors upon their Oath further say that Whether the said Charles Henry Cadogan at the time of taking this Inquisition is seized of or intitled unto any Manors Messuages Lands or Tenements they know not and whether the said Charles Henry Cadogan hath alienated any of his Manors Messuages  Lands Tenements Goods or Chattels during the said Lunacy the Jurors aforesaid know not And the Jurors aforesaid upon their Oath further say that who is the nearer Heir of the said Charles Henry Cadogan they know not In Testimony As well the said Commissioners as the Jurors aforesaid have hereunto set their Seals the day and place first above written.

(signed and sealed) Joseph Jekyll William Cooke Abraham Moore

2. Charles Cadogan’s will

National Archives, Kew PROB 11/1818/336

In the Name of God Amen I The Honourable Charles Henry Cadogan of Caversham in the County of Oxford Eldest Son of The Honourable Charles Sloane Lord Cadogan do make my last Will and Testament as follows to wit I give and bequeath unto Hans Sloane of Stoneham in the County of Southampton Esquire and Henry Hunter of Lincolns Inn Fields in the County of Middlesex Esquire all my personal Estate and effects whatsoever In trust to pay thereout all such debts as I shall owe at my decease and my ffuneral and Testamentary expenses and the Sum of five Guineas to each of my Trustees for a ring and to place forth the overplus and residue thereof at Interest on real or Governmental Securities and to pay apply and dispose of the interest dividends and produce thereof unto my Brother the Honourable and Reverend William Bromley Cadogan during his life and after his decease if His Wife shall him survive In trust to pay the interest dividends and Produce thereof unto the now Wife of the said William Bromley Cadogan during her life (subject to the proviso hereafter mentioned) and after the decease of the Survivor of them In trust to pay the principal unto and between all the Children of the said William Bromley Cadogan equally (except an older Son or Sons who shall have no part thereof of my said Brother has any other Child or Children who shall live to be entitled thereto) to be paid to such of them as shall be a Daughter or Daughters at the age or ages of twenty one years or day or days of Marriage which shall first happen and the interest and dividends thereof in the meantime to be paid and applied for and towards their maintenance education and support in the same proportions as they will be entitled to the Principal Once in case any or either of such Children shall die before their share of and in the said Principal shall become payable. Then In trust to pay the part or share thereof of Either or them so dying and the Interest or Dividends thereof unto the Survivors or Survivor of them and payable at the same time and in the same proportions as his her their original share or part thereof is hereby made payable and in case my said Brother shall have no Child or Children (except an only Son) or having such and they shall all die before my said Trust money shall become payable Then to pay and apply my said trust money unto and between all the Children of my father the said Charles Sloane Lord Cadogan equally (except an elder or only Son who shall have no part thereof if he has any other Child or Children who shall live to be intitled thereto) To be paid to such of them as shall be a Son or Sons at the age or ages of twenty one years and to such of them as shall be a daughter or daughters at the age or ages of twenty one years or day or days of marriage which shall first happen and the interest thereof in the mean time to be applied for and towards his her and their maintenance education and support in the like proportions as they will be intitled to the Principal And in case any or either of the last mentioned Children shall die before his her or their share or shares of and in my residuary Trust money shall become payable then in trust to pay the part or share of him her or them so dying and the interest and dividends thereof unto the survivors or survivor of them if more than one equally and to be paid at the same times as his her or their original share thereof is hereby made payable And in case there shall be no such Children of my said father or being such and they shall all die before their shares or parts of and in my said Trust shall become payable and my said Brother William Bromley Cadogan shall have an only Son Then in trust to pay the interest of my said Trust money for and towards the maintenance support and Education of such only Son until he shall attain the age of twenty one years and from and immediately after he shall have attained that age Then to pay my said Trust money or to transfer the securities wherein the same shall be invested unto the only Son of my said Brother to and for his own use Or if my said Brother shall not have such Son, or having such and he shall die under the age of twenty one years and my said Father to have an only son by his present Wife Then In trust to pay the interest and dividends of my said trust money for and towards the maintenance support and education of such Son until he shall attain the age of twenty one years from and immediately after he shall have attained that age In trust to pay all my said Trust money or to transfer the securities wherein the same shall be invested unto such Son to and for his own use and benefit Or in case my said Father shall not have such Son or having such and he shall die under the age or twenty one years Then In trust to pay my said Trust money or to transfer the securities wherein the same shall then be invested unto such Son to and for his own use and benefit Or in case my said Father shall not have such Son or having such and he shall die under the age of twenty one years Then In trust to pay my said trust money or to transfer the securities wherein the same shall then be invested unto such person or persons as well then be my most of kin and who would be entitled to my personal Estate under the Statute of distribution of Intestates Estates and Effects in case [-] has then died unmarried and intestate and to or for no other trust intent or purpose whatsoever Provides always and my Will is That in case my said Brother shall at any time during the joint lives of him and said Wife come to and be seized of the family Title and Estate and shall by virtue of and under the powers given to the person or persons who shall be seized thereof under the family Settlement of such Estate settle and secure such jointure or Income on his said Wife for her life out of such Estate as he is thereby empowered to do then that the Wife of my said Brother shall not have or receive or be entitled to the interest of produce of my said Trust money or any part thereof but that the same shall on the decease of my said Brother go to such of his Children or to such other person or persons as would be entitled thereto at the decease of my said Brother in case his said Wife was then dead anything herein contained to the contrary notwithstanding And my Will is that my Trustees shall not be answerable for any involuntary loss which may happen in my Trust money nor for more money than he or they shall actually receive nor shall one of them be answerable for the Acts receipts neglects or defaults of the other of them but such for his own Acts receipts neglects or defaults and that it shall be lawful for my said Trustees to retain to themselves out of the produce of my said trust Estate all such Costs as they shall be put to by means of the Trusts hereby reposed in them And I hereby nominate and appoint the said Hans Sloane and Henry Hunter Executors of this my Will hereby revoking all former Wills and Testaments by me made and to publish and declare these two Sheets of Paper to be and contain my last Will and Testament In Witness whereof I the said Charles Henry Cadogan the Testator have to the last of the said Sheets set me hand and to this the last of them my hand and Seal the twenty eighth day of April in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and eighty three – CH Cadogan – [his seal] – Signed Sealed published and declared by the above named Charles Henry Cadogan the Testator as and for his last Will and Testament in the presence of us – Richard Simson – George Holdup

On the 19th July 1833 Administration (with the Will annexed) of the Goods Chattels and Credits of The Right Honourable Charles Henry Earl Cadogan (formerly the Honourable Charles Henry Cadogan) Deceased was granted to the Right Honourable Lady Louisa Cadogan Spinster the natural and lawful daughter of Charles Sloane Lord Cadogan deceased and as such one of the Residuary Legatees substituted in the said Will having been first sworn duly to Administer.// Hans Sloane and Henry Hunter Esquires the Executors and Universal Legatees in trust and the Honourable and Reverend William Bromley Cadogan and the Residuary Legatee for life and Jane Cadogan (Wife of the said Honourable and Reverend William Bromley Cadogan) the residuary Legatee for life substituted respectively died in the lifetime of the said Testator) and the said Honourable and Reverend William Bromley Cadogan died without issue (as by Acts of Court Appear//.

12880963242541_1161_main

West End of Upper Grosvenor Street drawn and engraved by JB Malcolm 1808 (c) Gillmark Gallery

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